Estudios Geológicos, Vol 76, No 1 (2020)

Suidos fósiles del Sistema paleokárstico de Bolt's Farm, Sudáfrica: implicaciones para la taxonomía y biocronología de Potamochoeroides y los Notochoerus


https://doi.org/10.3989/egeol.43542.536

M. Pickford
CR2P/UMR 7207, MNHN-CNRS-SU, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Francia
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9017-1107

D. Gommery
CR2P/UMR 7207, CNRS-MNHN-SU, Sorbonne Université - Palaeo-Research Institute, University of Johannesburg - HRU, Plio-Pleistocene Palaeontology Section, Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, Francia
orcid https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6288-1937

Resumen


Las recientes excavaciones en Aves Cave I (AC), Brad Pit 'A' (BPA), Milo 'A' (MA), Bridge Cave (BC) y Alcelaphine Cave (AL), en la Cuna de la Humanidad, Gauteng (Sudáfrica), han proporcionado restos fósiles de suidos que aportan información bioestratigráfica sobre los intervalos de sedimentación del Sistema Paleokárstico de Bolt’s Farm. En Aves Cave I, Plioceno superior, se han encontrado restos del suido extinto Potamochoeroides hypsodon, incluyendo elementos esqueléticos que estaban poco representados en las colecciones previas de Bolt’s Farm, así como escasos restos de Notochoerus capensis. En Brad Pit 'A' se encontraron restos de Gerontochoerus koo­biforaensis. En Milo 'A' y en otros depósitos se han hallado restos del suido Metridiochoerus andrewsi que indi­can la existencia de una fase posterior de sedimentación endokárstica (Pleistoceno inferior). En Panthera Spot en Bridge Cave se han encontrado huesos articulados del pie de un suido, determinados provisionalmente como Phacochoerus modestus, que indican una edad Pleistoceno inferior para este relleno. El aumento de la muestra de suidos de Bolt’s Farm invita a realizar comparaciones detalladas con los de Makapansgat lo que permite una revisión de la taxonomía de Notochoerus y Potamochoeroides. Se demuestra que ambos géneros son Suina y podrían ser sinónimos. También se han podido realizar comparaciones con los suidos del Plio-Pleistoceno de Malawi y Namibia.

Palabras clave


Sudáfrica; Suidae; Taxonomía; Anatomía comparada; Plio-Pleistoceno

Texto completo:


HTML PDF XML

Referencias


Arambourg, C. (1943). Observations sur les Suidés fos­siles du Pléistocène d’Afrique. Bulletin du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 15: 471–476.

Arambourg, C. (1947). Mission Scientifique de l’Omo 1932–1933. Tome 1: Géologie-Anthropologie. Fascicule 3. Contribution à l’étude géologique et Paléontologique du bassin du lac Rodolphe et de la basse vallée de l’Omo. Deuxième partie: paléontolo­gie. Editions du Muséum, Paris, pp. 231–562.

Bender, P.A. (1990). A Reconsideration of the Fossil Suid, Potamochoeroides shawi, from the Makapansgat Limeworks, Potgietersrus, Northern Transvaal. MSc Thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannes­burg, 82 pp, 33 figures, Appendix.

Bender, P.A. (1992). A reconsideration of the fossil suid, Potamochoeroides shawi, from the Makapansgat Limeworks, Potgietersrus, Northern Transvaal. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum Bloemfon­tein, 8 (1): 1-66.

Broom, R. (1925). On evidence of a giant pig from the late Tertiaries of South Africa. Records of the Albany Museum, Grahamstown, 3: 307–308.

Broom, R. (1928). On some new mammals from the Dia­mond Gravels of the Kimberley District. Annals of the South African Museum, 22: 439–444.

Broom, R. (1931). A new extinct giant pig from the dia­mond gravels of Windsorton, South Africa. Records of the Albany Museum, Grahamstown, 4: 167–168.

Broom R. (1937). Notices of a few more new fossil mam­mals from the caves of the Transvaal. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 20: 509–514.

Broom R. (1948). Some South African Pliocene and Pleis­tocene mammals. Annals of the Transvaal Museum, 21: 1–38.

Cooke, H.B.S. (1949). The fossil Suina of South Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 32: 1–44.

Cooke, H.B.S. (1993). Undescribed suid remains from Bolt’s Farm and other Transvaal cave deposits. Pal­aeontologia africana, 30: 7–23.

Cooke, H.B.S. (1994). Phacochoerus modestus from Sterkfontein Member 5. South African Journal of Science, 90: 99–100.

Cooke, H.B.S. (2005). Makapansgat suids and Metridi­ochoerus. Palaeontologia africana, 41: 131–140.

Cooke, H.B.S. & Ewer, R.F. (1972). Fossil Suidae from Kanapoi and Lothagam, Kenya. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology Harvard, 143: 149–295.

Cooke, H.B.S. & Maglio, V.J. (1972). Plio-Pleistocene stratigraphy in East Africa in relation to probosci­dean and suid evolution. In: Calibration of Hominoid Evolution, (Bishop W.W. & Miller J.A. Eds) Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh, pp. 303–329.

Cooke, H.B.S. & Wilkinson, A. (1978). Suidae and Tayas­suidae. In: Evolution of African Mammals (Maglio V.J. & Cooke H.B.S. Eds), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 435–482.

Coppens, Y. (1971). Une nouvelle espèce de Suidé du Vil­lafranchien du Tunisie, Nyanzachoerus jaegeri nov. sp. Comptes rendus de l’Académie des Sciences de Paris, Série D, 272: 3264–3267.

Cuvier, F, (1826). Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, dans lequel on traite méthodiquement des différens êtres de la nature, considérés soit en eux-mêmes, d’après l’état actuel de nos connoissances, soit rel­ativement à l’utilité qu’en peuvent retirer la méde­cine, l’agriculture, le commerce et les arts, Suivis d’une biographie des plus célèbres naturalistes. F.G. Levrault, Editeur, Strasbourg, vol. 39: 1–559.

Dale, M. (1948). New fossil Suidae from the Limeworks Quarry, Makapansgat, Potgietersrust. South African Science, 2: 114–117.

Dietrich, W.O. (1942). Altestquartäre Säugetiere aus der südlichen Serengeti, Deutsch-Ostafrika. Palaeonto­graphica, Abteilung A, 94 (3–6): 43–133.

Dirks, P.; Roberts, E.M.; Hilbert-Wolf, H.; Kramers, J.; Dosseto, A.; Duval, M.; Elliott, M.; Evans, M.; Grün, R.; Hellstrom, J.; Herries, A.; Joannes-Boyau, R.; Makhubela, T.V.; Placzek, C.J.; Robbins, J.; Spandler, C.; Wiersma, J.; Woodhead, J. & Berger, L.R. (2017). The age of Homo naledi and associated sediments in the Rising Star Cave, South Africa”. eLife, 6: e24231.

Ewer, R.F. (1956). The fossil suids of the Transvaal caves. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 127: 527–544.

Ewer, R.F. (1958a). The fossil Suidae of Makapansgat. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 130: 329–372.

Ewer, R.F. (1958b). Adaptive features in the skulls of African Suidae. Proceedings of the Zoological Soci­ety of London, 131: 135–155.

Flower, W.H. (1876). An Introduction to the Osteology of the Mammalia : Being the Substance of Lectures Delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons of Eng­land in 1870. 2nd Edition, MacMillan and Co. Lon­don, 344 pp.

Geraads, D. & Bobe, R. (2017). Suidae from Kanapoi. Journal of Human Evolution.

Gray, J.E. (1821). On the natural arrangement of verte­brose animals. London Medical Repository, 15 (1): 296–310.

Gray, J.E. (1854). On the painted pig of the Cameroons (Potamochoerus penicillatus). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1854: 129–131.

Gray, J.E. (1873). Handlist of the Edentate, Thick-skinned and Ruminant Mammals in the British Museum. British Museum Trustees, London. 174 pp. 41 pls.

Harris, J.M. (1983). Family Suidae. In: Koobi Fora Research Project: Volume II: The Fossil Ungulates, Proboscidea, Perissodactyla, and Suidae (Harris, J.M. Ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 215–300.

Harris, J.M. & Cerling, T.E. (2002). Dietary adaptations of extant and Neogene African suids. Journal of Zoology, 256: 45–54.

Harris, J.M. & White, T.D. (1979). Evolution of Plio-Pleis­tocene African Suidae. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, 69: 1–128.

Harris, J.M.; Brown, F.H. & Leakey, M.G. (1988). Stratig­raphy and Paleontology of Pliocene and Pleistocene localities west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. Contribu­tions in Science, 399: 1–128.

Herries, A.I.R.; Pickering, R.; Adams, J.W.; Curnoe, D.; Warr, G.; Latham, A.G. & Shaw, J. (2013). A multi-disciplinary perspective on the age of Australopithe­cus in Southern Africa. In: The Paleobiology of Australopithecus. (Reed, K., Fleagle, J. & Leakey, R., Eds) Springer Science+Business Media, Dor­drecht, pp. 21–40.

Hopwood, A.T. (1926). Some Mammalia from the Plio­cene of Homa Mountain, Victoria Nyanza. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 9th Ser. 18: 267–280.

Hünermann, K.A. (1968). Die Suidae (Mammalia, Artiodac­tyla) aus den Dinotheriensanden (Unterpliozän = Pont) Rheinhessens (Südwestdeutschland). Schweizerische Paläontologische Abhandlungen, 86: 1–96.

Ide, Y.; Nakahara, T.; Nasu, M.; Matsunaga, S.; Iwanaga, T.; Tominaga N. & Tamaki Y. (2013). Postnatal man­dibular cheek tooth development in the Miniature Pig based on two-dimensional and three-dimensonal X-Ray analyses. The Anatomical Record, 296: 1247–1254.

Kullmer, O. (2008). The fossil Suidae from the Plio- Pleistocene Chiwondo Beds of Northern Malawi, Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28: 208–216.

Lazagabaster, I.A.; Souron, A.; Rowan, J.; Robinson, J.R.; Campisano, C.J. & Reed, K.E. (2018). Fossil Suidae (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) from Lee Adoyta, Ledi- Geraru, lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia : Implications for the late Pliocene turnover and paleoecology. Pal­aeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 504: 186–200.

Leakey, L.S.B. (1942). New fossil Suidae from Olduvai. Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural His­tory Society, 16: 178–196.

Leakey, L.S.B. (1943). New fossil Suidae from Shungura, Omo. Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society, 17: 45–61.

Leakey, L.S.B. (1958). Some East African Pleistocene Suidae. Fossil Mammals of Africa, 14: 1–69.

Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Spe­cies, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis, Editio decima, reformata, Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae (Stockholm) 823 pp.

Müller, S. & Schlegel, H. (1845). Over die wilde zwijnen van den Indische Archipel, In: Temminck, C.J. (Ed.) Verhandelingen over de natuurlijke geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Overzeesche Bezittingen, door de leden der Natuurkundige Commissie in OostIndië en andere schrijvers. Luchtmans & Van den Hoek, Leiden, pp. 169–182, pls 28–32.

Pallas, P.S. (1767). Elenchus Zoophytorum Sistens Generum Adumbrationes Generaliores et Speciorum Cognitarum Succinctas Descriptiones cum Selectis Auctorum Synonymis. Hagae, 451 pp.

Pickford, M. (1988). Revision of the Miocene Suidae of the Indian Subcontinent. Münchner Geowissen­schaftliche Abhandlungen, 12: 1–91.

Pickford, M. (2006). Synopsis of the biochronology of Afri­can Neogene and Quaternary Suiformes. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 61 (2): 51–62.

Pickford, M. (2012). Ancestors of Broom’s Pigs. Transac­tions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 67: 17–35.

Pickford, M. (2013a). The diversity, age, biogeographic and phylogenetic relationships of Plio-Pleistocene suids from Kromdraai, South Africa. Annals of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, 3: 1–32.

Pickford, M. (2013b). Locomotion, diet, body weight, ori­gin and geochronology of Metridiochoerus andrewsi from the Gondolin karst deposits, Gauteng, South Africa. Annals of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, 3: 33–47.

Pickford, M. (2013c). Reappraisal of Hylochoerus eui­lus Hopwood, 1926 (Suidae, Mammalia) from the Albertine Rift (Pliocene) Uganda. Geo-Pal Uganda, 6: 1–26.

Pickford, M. & Gommery, D. (2016). Fossil Suidae (Arti­odactyla, Mammalia) from Aves Cave I and nearby sites in Bolt’s Farm Palaeokarst System, South Africa. Estudios Geologicos, 72 (2): 24 pp.

Pickford, M.; Mocke, H.; Ségalen, L. & Senut, B. (2016). Update of the Pliocene fauna of the Ekuma Valley, Etosha, Namibia. Communications of the Geological Survey of Namibia, 17: 115–144.

Plug, I. (2014). What Bone is that? A Guide to the Identifi­cation of Southern African Mammal Bones. Rosslyn Press, Pretoria, 514 pp.

Sénégas F. (2000). Les faunes de rongeurs (Mammalia) plio-pléistocènes de la province du Gauteng (Afrique du Sud) : mises au point et apports systématiques, biochronologiques et precisions paléoenvironnemen­tales. PhD Thesis, University of Montpellier II, Montpellier, France. Volume 1, 232 pp, Volume 2, 227 pp.

Sénégas F. (2004). A new species of Petromus (Roden­tia, Hystricognatha, Petromuridae) from the early Pliocene of South Africa and its paleoenvironmental implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24: 757–763.

Sénégas F. & Avery M. (1998). New evidence for the murine origins of the Otomyinae (Mammalia, Rodentia) and the age of Bolt’s Farm (South Africa). South African Journal of Science, 94: 503–507.

Sénégas F., Thackeray J.F., Gommery D. & Braga J. (2002). Palaeontological sites on ‘Bolt’s Farm’, Ster­kfontein Valley, South Africa. Annals of the Trans­vaal Museum, 39: 65–67.

Shaw, J.C.M. (1938). The teeth of the South African fossil pig (Notochoerus capensis, syn. meadowsi) and their geological significance. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 26: 25–37.

Thackeray J.F.; Gommery D.; Sénégas F.; Potze S.; Kgasi L.; McCrae C. & Prat S. (2008). A survey of past and present work on Plio-Pleistocene deposits on Bolt’s Farm, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa. Annals of the Transvaal Museum, 45: 83–89.

Thomas, O. (1904). On Hylochoerus, the forest pig of Central Africa. Proceedings of the Zoological Soci­ety of London, 1904: 193–199.

Van der Made, J. (1998). Biometrical trends in the Tet­raconodontinae, a subfamily of pigs. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 89: 199–225.

Van Hoepen, E. & Van Hoepen, H. (1932). Vrijstaatse Wilde Varke. Paleontologiese Navorsing van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein, 2 (4): 1–23, 39–62.

Walker, R. (1985). A Guide to the Post-cranial Bones of East African Animals. Hylochoerus Press (F. Crowe & Sons Ltd), Norwich, England, 285 pp + 7 annex pp.

White, T. & Harris, J. (1977). Suid evolution and corre­lation of African hominid localities. Science, 198: 13–21.




Copyright (c) 2020 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Licencia de Creative Commons
Esta obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.


Contacte con la revista estudios.geologicos@igeo.ucm-csic.es

Soporte técnico soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es