Estudios Geológicos, Vol 65, No 2 (2009)

La distinción entre Ugandapithecus y Proconsul


https://doi.org/10.3989/egeol.39926.071

M. Pickford
Collège de France, Paris, Francia

B. Senut
UMR 7207 (CR2P) du CNRS, Paris, Francia

D. Gommery
UPR 2147 du CNRS, Paris, Francia

E. Musiime
Department of Palaeontology, Uganda Museum, Kampala, Uganda

Resumen


La decisión de crear el género Ugandapithecus por Senut et al. (2000) ha sido criticada, tanto directamente y en detalle por Maclatchy & Rossie (2005b) que argumentan que es una sinonimia de Proconsul, o indirectamente sin ninguna argumentación, primero por Harrison (2001) que no lo considera como distinto de Proconsul, y después por Suwa et al. (2007) que emplean el nombre de “Ugandapithecus” entre comillas, implicando algún grado de duda sobre su validez como género. Recientemente Harrison & Andrews (2009) han reconocido la muestra de Meswa como una especie diferente, pero argumentando que debería ser mantenida en Proconsul, a pesar de las diferencias morfológicas que posee con respecto a otras especies del género. En este trabajo reexaminamos el problema, por un lado comparando, el maxilar holotipo de Proconsul africanus, especie tipo del género, con la dentición superior de Ugandapithecus major y por otro lado, con la dentición inferior y mandíbulas previamente atribuidas a Proconsul africanus. La conclusión de estas comparaciones es que las diferencias entre las denticiones superiores e inferiores conocidas de P. africanus y U. major son de tal grado que los dos taxones necesitan una separación genérica, y que las diferencias no están relacionadas con dimorfismo sexual. Tanto como Proconsul difiere de Ugandapithecus major , se aproxima a Proconsul nyanzae y Proconsul heseloni de Rusinga.
Además, el rango de variación morfométrica en la muestra previamente atribuida a Ugandapithecus es tan grande que sobrepasa de lejos la variación conocida en cualquier hominoideo, fósil o actual. Previamente esta importante variación fue interpretada como debida a que U. major era extremadamente dimórfico, con enormes machos y pequeñas hembras, pero si esto fuese verdad, entonces U. major sería único entre los hominoideos al tener hembras cuya dentición cae completamente fuera del rango de variabilidad de la dentición de los machos. En todos las otras especies conocidas de hominoideos, machos y hembras poseen rangos dentarios cuyas dimensiones se solapan ampliamente. Los gráficos bivariantes de los dientes atribuidos a Ugandapithecus revelan tres agrupaciones independientes para los ejemplares del Mioceno inferior, que nosotros interpretamos como representantes de tres especies diferentes. Una cuarta especie del género, U. gitongai fue previamente definida en el yacimiento Mioceno Medio de Kipsaraman, Kenia. Nosotros podemos concluir que Ugandapithecus constituyó una línea de grandes simios distintos de Proconsul, en los que su principal tendencia evolutiva fue el incremento en talla desde Ugandapithecus meswae de la base del Mioceno Inferior (21,5-19 Ma) hasta las especies final del Mioceno Inferior, Ugandapithecus legetetensis (20-19 Ma) y Ugandapithecus major (19-18 Ma), culminando en Ugandapithecus gitongai del final del Mioceno medio (ca. 14,5 Ma).

Palabras clave


Hominoidea; Ugandapithecus; Proconsul; morfometría; Africa del este; Mioceno Inferior y Medio

Texto completo:


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