Estudios Geológicos, Vol 67, No 2 (2011)

La asociación de carnívoros miocenos de Grecia


https://doi.org/10.3989/egeol.40560.190

G. D. Koufos
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Department of Geology, Grecia

Resumen


La asociación de carnívoros miocenos de Grecia incluye un gran número de taxones, descritos en numerosos artículos desde las primeras décadas del siglo XIX. El presente artículo supone un esfuerzo de síntesis de todos estos taxones, suministrando información sobre su historia, localidad, edad, así como su distribución estratigráfica e inferencias paleoambientales. El registro de los carnívoros del Mioceno inferior y medio es pobre, debido a que las localidades existentes y los fósiles son raros. Sin embargo, el Mioceno superior es considerablemente rico, incluyendo numerosos taxones. Las localidades miocenas con carnívoros y su edad se exponen en un cuadro estratigráfico que abarca las Zonas de Mamíferos Europeas desde la MN4 a la MN 13. La localidad tipo, holotipo y algunas notas históricas y morfológicas se suministran para cada taxón. Algunos taxones de carnívoros fueron definidos sobre material griego, nuevas fotografías de los holotipos sonfiguradas. La distribución estratigráfica de los taxones de carnívoros griegos cubren un lapso de tiempo comprendido entre los 19,0 a los 5,3 Ma. La mayoría de los taxones miocenos (Adcrocuta, Hyaenictitherium, Plioviverrops, Protictitherium, Ictitherium, Indarctos, Dinocrocuta, Promephitis) desaparecen al final del Mioceno. La composición de la asociación de carnívoros miocenos de Grecia incluye principalmente vivérridos (Lophocyon, Euboictis), mientras que los hiénidos, percrocútidos, félidos y mustélidos son más escasos. Por el contrario la asociación del Mioceno superior es más rica, incluyendo más subfamilias y más especies; dominando hienas y mustélidos, mientras que los vivérridos están ausentes. La estructura de la comunidad (gremio) de carnívoros del Mioceno superior es similar a la del actual Serengeti, indicativo de un ambiente relativamente abierto, similar a la sabana, de acuerdo con los resultados de otros trabajos realizados en el área.

Palabras clave


Carnivora; Mioceno; Grecia; Sistemática; Diversidad; Cronología

Texto completo:


PDF

Referencias


Andrews, C.W. (1918). Note on some fossil mammals from Salonica and Imbros, Geological Magazine, 6: 540-543. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0016756800201076

Arambourg, C. & J. Piveteau, J. (1929). Les Vertébrés du Pontien de Salonique. Annales de Paléontologie, 18: 59-138.

Baird, S.F. (1857). Mammals: general report upon the zoology of the several Pacific railroad route. Repts, Explorations and Surveys for railroad route from Mississippi River to Pacific Ocean, 8: 1-757.

Baryshnikov, G. (2002). Late Miocene Indarctos punjabiensis atticus (Carnivora, Ursidae) in Ukraine with survey of Indarctos records in the former USSR. Russian Journal of Theriology, 1(2): 83-89.

Barry, J.; Morgan, M.; Flynn, L., Pilbeam, D.; Khan, I.; Badgely, C.; Hicks, J. & Kelley, J. (2002). Faunal and environmental change in the Late Miocene Siwaliks of Northern Pakistan. Palaeobiology, 28: 1-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1666/0094-8373(2002)28[1:FAECIT]2.0.CO;2

Beaumont, G. de (1961). Recherches sur Felis attica Wagner eurasiatique avec quelques observations sur les genres Pseudaelurus Gervais et Proailurus Filhol. Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Lyon 6: 1-45.

Beaumont, G. de (1968). Une interessante mandibule de Hyaenidae (Carnivora) du Pontien de Samos. Archives des Sciences Geneve, 32: 247-250.

Beaumont, G. de (1975). Recherches sur les félidés (Mammifères, Carnivores) du Pliocène inférieur des sables a Dinotherium des environs d’Eppelsheim (Rheihessen). Archives des Sciences, 28: 369-405.

Beaumont G. de (1986). La patte postérieure de Felis attica Wagn. (Mammifère,Carnivore) du Turolien de Grèce. Archives des Sciences Geneve, 39(3): 377-386.

Begun, D.; Gülec, E. & Geraads, D. (2003). The Çandir hominoid locality: Implications for the timing and pattern of hominoid dispersal events. In: Geology and Vertebrate Palaeontology of the middle Miocene hominoid locality Çandir (Central Anatolia, Turkey), (Gülec, E.; Begun, D. & Geraads, D., eds). Courier Forschung-Institut Senckenberg, 240, 240-265.

Bonaparte, C.L. J.L. (1837). New systematic arrangement of vertebrated animals. Transanctions Linnean Society of London, 18 :247-304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1838.tb00177.x

Bonis, L. de & Koufos, G.D. (1981). A new hyaenid (Carnivora, Mammalia) in the Vallesian (late Miocene) of Northern Greece. Scientific Annals Faculty Physics Mathematics, Univ. Thessaloniki, 21: 79-94.

Bonis, L. de & Koufos, G.D. (1991). The late Miocene small carnivores of the lower Axios Valley (Macedonia, Greece). Geobios, 24(2): 361-379. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-6995(09)90015-8

Bonis, L. de & Koufos, G.D. (1994a). Some hyaenids from the late Miocene of Macedonia (Greece) and the phylogeny of hunting hyaenas. Münchener Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, 26: 81-96.

Bonis, L. de & Koufos, G.D. (1994b). Our ancestors’ ancestor: Ouranopithecus is a Greek link in human ancestry. Evolutionary Anthropology, 4(3): 75-83.

Bonis, L. de; Bouvrain, G. & Koufos, G.D. (1999). The Miocene large mammal succession in Greece. In: Hominoid Evolution and climatic change in Europe”, vol. I “The evolution of the Neogene terrestrial ecosystems in Europe (Agusti, J.; Rook, L. & Andrews, P., eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 205-237.

Bonis, L. de; Bouvrain, G.; Geraads, D. & Koufos, G.D. (1992). Diversity and palaeoecology of Greek late Miocene mammalian faunas. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 91: 99-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-0182(92)90035-4

Bowdich, T.E. (1821). An analysis of the natural classifications of Mammalia for the use of students and travelers. J. Smith, Paris, 115 pp.

Burmeister, G. (1850). Verzeichniss der im Zoologischen Museum de Universität Halle-Wittenberg aufgestellten Säugethiere, Vögel und Amphibien. Halle, Friedrichs- Universität, 84pp.

Burmeister, G. (1866). Lista de los mamíferos fósiles del terreno diluviano. Anales del Museo Público de Buenos Aires, 1: 121-232.

Dames, W. (1883). Über das Vorkommen von Hyaenarctos in den Pliocän-Ablagerungen von Pikermi bei Athen. Sitzungsber. Gesellsch. naturf. Freunde Berlin, 8: 132-139.

Depéret, C. (1892). La faune des mammiferes miocènes de la Grive Saint-Alban. Archives Museum Histoire naturelle Lyon, 5: 31-96.

Dietrich, W.O. (1927). Ueber einen schädel von Ictitherium (fam. Viverridae). Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, 57: 364-371.

Doukas, C. (2003). The MN4 faunas of Aliveri and Karydia (Greece). Coloquios de Paleontología, Vol. Ext. 1: 127-132.

Erdbrink, D.P.B. (1953). A review of fossil and recent bears of the Old World. D.J. de Lange, Deventer, 597 pp.

Eronen, J.T. & Rook, L. (2004). The Mio-Pliocene European primate fossil record: dynamics and habitat tracking. Journal of Human Evolution, 47: 323-341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.08.003 PMid:15530351

Eronen, J.T.; Mirzaie Ataabadi, M.; Micheels, A.; Karme, A.; Bernor, R.-L. & Fortelius, M. (2009). Distribution history and climatic controls of the Late Miocene Pikermian chronofauna. Proceedings National Acadedy of Sciences USA,106(29): 11867-11871. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0902598106 PMid:19571012    PMCid:2715530

Fejfar, O. & Schmidt-Kittler, N. (1984). Sivanasua und Euboictis nv. gen.- zwei pflanzenfressende Schleichkatzenvorläufer (Viverridae, Carnivora, Mammalia) im europäischen Untermiozän. Mainzer Geowissenschaften Mitteilungen, 13: 49-72.

Fejfar, O. & Schmidt-Kittler, N. (1987). Lophocyon carpathicus nov gen. nov. sp. aus dem Jungtertiär der Ostslowakei und eine neue unterfamilie der schleikatzen (Viverridae). Palaeontographica, 199: 1-22.

Filhol, H. (1890). Étude sur les mammifères de Sansan. Bibliothèque de l’École des Hautes Études, section des Sciences Naturelles, 37, 1-319.

Filhol, M. (1891). Étude sur les mammifères fossiles de Sansan. Annales Societe géologique, 21: 1-319.

Fischer von Waldheim, G. (1817). Adversaria Zoologica, fasciculus primus. Mémoires de la Société des Naturalistes de Moscou, 5: 357-446.

Forsyth Major, C.I. (1888). Sur un gisement d’ossements fossiles dans l’île de Samos contemporains de l’âge de Pikermi. Compte Rendus Hebd. Séances Societe Geologique France, 107: 1178-1181.

Forsyth Major, C.I. (1891). Considerations nouvelles sur la faune des Vertebres du Miocene superieur dans l’ile de Samos. Compte Rendus Academie Sciences Paris, CXIII:608-610.

Forsyth Major, C.J. (1894). Le gisement ossifère de Mytilinii et catalogue d’ossements fossiles recueillis à Mytilini, île de Samos, et déposés au Collège Galliard, à Lausanne. Georges Bridel & Cie, Lausanne, 51 pp.

Forsyth-Mayor, C.I. (1903). New Carnivora from the Middle Miocene of La Grive St-Alban. Geological Magazine, n.s. 1: 534-538.

Gaillard, C. (1899). Mammifères miocènes nouveaux ou peu connus de La Grive St-Alban. Archives Museum Lyon 7: 1-79.

Gaudry, A. (1861a). Résultats des fouilles enteprises en Grèce sous les auspices de l’Académie des Sciences. Compte Rendus Academie Sciences Paris, 52: 722- 724.

Gaudry, A. (1861b). Note sur les carnassiers fossils de Pikermi (Gréce). Bulletin de la Sociéte géologique de France, 18: 527-538.

Gaudry, A. (1862-67). Animaux fossils et géologie de l’Attique. Savy, Paris, 476 pp.

Geraads, D.; Tsoukala, E., & Spassov, N. (2007). A skull of Ancylotherium (Chalicotheriidae, Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of Thermopigi (Serres, N.Greece), and the relationships of the genus. Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology, 27(2): 461-466. http://dx.doi.org/10.1671/0272-4634(2007)27[461:ASOACM]2.0.CO;2

Gervais, P. (1859). Zoologie et Paléontologie francaise. Paris, 544 pp.

Gill, T. (1872). Arrangement of the families of mammals with analytical tables. Smithsonian Miscellaneous collection, 11: 1-98.

Ginsburg, L. (1999). Order Carnivora. In: The Miocene land mammals of Europe (Rössner, G. & Heissig, K., eds). Verlag Dr Friedrich Pfeil, Munchen, 109-148.

Gray, J.E. (1821). On the natural arrangement of vertebrate animals. London Medical Repository 15: 296- 310.

Gray, J.E. (1843). List of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum. British Museum (Natural History), London, 216 pp.

Hay, O.P. (1930). Second bibliography and catalogue of the fossil Vertebrata of North America. Carnegie Intitute publications, Washington, no. 390, vol. 1, 916 pp; vol. 2, 1074 pp.

Heizmann, E.P.J., 1973. Die Tertiären Wirbeltiere des Steinheimer Beckens. Palaeontographica, 8 (Suppl.): 1-95.

Helbing, H. (1932). Über einen Indarctos-Schädel aus dem Pontien der Insel Samos. Nebst einen Anhang: Hyaenarctos spec. aus dem Pliocaen von Vialette (Haute-Loire). Mémoires Societe Paléontologique Suisse, 52: 1-18,

Hensel, R.F. (1862). Über die Reste einiger Säugetierarten von Pikermi in der Münchener Sammlung. Monatsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften, 27 :560- 569.

Howell, F.C. & Petter, G. (1985). Comparative observations on some middle and upper Miocene hyaenids genera: Percrocuta KRETZOI, Allohyaena KRETZOI, Adcrocuta KRETZOI (Mammalia, Carnivora, Hyaenidae). Geobios, 18: 419-476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-6995(85)80001-2

Ioakim, C. & Koufos, G.D. (2009). Palynology. In: The Late Miocene Mammal Faunas of the Mytilinii Basin, Samos Island, Greece: new collection (Koufos, G.D. & Nägel, D., eds), Beiträge zur Paläontologie, 31: 27-35.

Ioakim, C.; Rondoyianni, T. & Mettos, A. (2005). The Miocene basins of Greece (Eastern Mediterranean) from a palaeoclimatic perspective. Revue Palaeobiologique, 24(2): 735-748.

Kittl, E. (1887). Beiträge zur Kennthniss der fossilen Säugethiere von Maragha in Persia. I. Carnivora. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums, 2: 317-338.

Kormos, T. (1911). Der Pliozäne Knochenfund bei Polgárdi (vorläufiger Bericht). Földtani Közlöny, 41: 171- 189.

Kostopoulos, D.S. (2009). The Pikermi Event: temporal and spatial resolution of the Turolian large mammal fauna in SE Europe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 274, 82-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.12.020

Kostopoulos, D.S.; Koufos, G.D.; Sylvestrou, I.A.; Syrides, G.E. & Tsompachidou, E. (2009). Lithostratigraphy and Fossiliferous Sites. In: The Late Miocene Mammal Faunas of the Mytilinii Basin, Samos Island, Greece: New Collection (Koufos, G.D. & Nagel, D., eds). Beiträge zur Paläontologie, 31: 13-26.

Koufos, G.D. (1982). Plesiogulo crassa from the Upper Miocene (lower Turolian) of Northern Greece. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 19: 193-197.

Koufos, G.D. (1987). Chasmaporthetes bonisi, a new hyaenid (Carnivora, Mammalia) from the late Miocene of Macedonia (Greece). Bulletin Societe Géologique France, (8), t. III, no 5: 913-920.

Koufos, G.D. (1995). The late Miocene percrocutas of Macedonia (Greece). Palaeovertebrata, 24: 67-84. Koufos, G.D. (2000). Revision of the late Miocene carnivores from the lower Axios valley. Münchner Geowissenschaften Abhandlungen, (A) 39: 51-92.

Koufos, G.D. (2006a). The Neogene mammal localities of Greece: faunas, chronology and biostratigraphy. Hellenic Journal of Geosciences, 41: 183-214.

Koufos, G.D. (2006b). Carnivora. In: The late Miocene Vertebrate locality of Perivolaki, Thessaly, Greece (Koufos, G.D., ed.), Palaeontographica, Abt. A, 276: 39-74.

Koufos, G.D. (2006c). The large mammals from the Miocene/Pliocene locality of Silata, Macedonia, Greece with implications about the Latest Miocene palaeoecology. Beitrage zur Paläontologie, 30: 293-313.

Koufos, G.D. (2006d). Palaeoecology and chronology of the Vallesian (late Miocene) in the Eastern Mediterranean.

Koufos, G.D. (2008). Carnivores from the early/middle Miocene locality of Antonios (Chalkidiki, Macedonia, Greece). Geobios, 41: 365-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geobios.2007.05.003

Koufos, G.D. (2009). Carnivora. In: The Late Miocene Mammal Faunas of the Mytilinii Basin, Samos Island, Greece: New Collection (Koufos, G.D. & Nagel, D., eds). Beiträge zur Paläontologie, 31: 57-105.

Koufos, G.D. (2011a). New material of Carnivora (Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of Axios Valley, Macedonia, Greece. Comptes Rendus Palevol (in press).

Koufos, G.D. (2011b). A new protictithere from the late Miocene hominoid locality Ravin de la Pluie of Axios Valley (Macedonia, Greece).

Koufos, G.D. (in press). Neogene Mammal Biostratigraphy and Chronology of Greece. In: Asian Neogene Mammal Biostratigraphy and Chronology (Xiaoming, W., Fortelius, M. & Flynn, L., eds). Columbia University Press.

Koufos, G.D. & Konidaris, G.E., (2011). Late Miocene carnivores of the Greco-Iranian Province: Composition, guild structure and palaeoecology. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 305: 215- 226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.03.003

Koufos, G.D.; Bonis de L. & Sen, S. (1995). Lophocyon paraskevaidisi a new viverrid (Carnivora, Mammalia from the middle Miocene of Chios Island (Greece). Geobios, 28(4): 511-523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-6995(95)80028-X

Koufos, G.D.; Kostopoulos, D.S. & Merceron, G. (2009b). Palaeoecology-Palaeobiogeography. In: The Late Miocene Mammal Faunas of the Mytilinii Basin, Samos Island, Greece: New Collection (Koufos, G.D. & Nagel, D., eds). Beiträge zur Paläontologie, 31: 409-428.

Koufos, G.D.; Kostopoulos, D.S. & Vlachou, T.D. (2009a). Chronology. In: The Late Miocene Mammal Faunas of the Mytilinii Basin, Samos Island, Greece: New Collection (Koufos, G.D. & Nagel, D., eds). Beiträge zur Paläontologie, 31: 397-408.

Koufos, G.D.; Merceron, G.; Kostopoulos, D.S.; Vlachou, T.D. & Sylvestrou, I. (2006b). Palaeoecology and Palaeobiogeography. In: The late Miocene Vertebrate locality of Perivolaki, Thessaly, Greece (Koufos, G.D., ed.), Palaeontographica, Abt. A, 276: 201-221.

Koufos, G.D.; Sen, S.; Kostopoulos, D.S.; Sylvestrou, I.A. & Vlachou, T.D. (2006a). Chronology. In: The late Miocene Vertebrate locality of Perivolaki, Thessaly, Greece (Koufos, G.D., ed.), Palaeontographica, Abt. A, 276: 185-200.

Kovar-Eder, J.; Kvacek, Z.; Martinetto, E. & Roiron, P. (2006). Late Miocene to early Pliocene vegetation of Southern Europe (and-4 Ma) as reflected in the megafossil plant record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 238: 321-339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.03.031

Kretzoi, M. (1929): Materialen zur phylogenetischen Klassification der Ailuroïden. 10th Congress. International of Zoology, Budapest, 1927, 2: 1293-1355.

Kretzoi, M. (1938). Die Raubtiere von Gombaszog nebst einer Übersicht der Gesamtfauna (ein beitrag zur stratigraphie des Altquataers). Annals Museum Naturalis Hungarici, 31: 89-157.

Kretzoi, M. (1952). Die Raubtiere der Hipparionfauna von Polgardi. Annales Instituti Geologici Hungarici, 40(3): 5-42.

Kretzoi, M. (1965). Die Hipparion-fauna von Gyo’´rszentmárton in NW-Ungarn. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 57:127-143.

Kurtén, B. (1957). Percrocuta Kretzoi (Mammalia, Carnivora), a group of Neogene hyaenas. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia, 2: 375-404.

Kurtén, B. (1982). Status of the fossil hyaenids Ictitherium viverrinum and Thalassictis robusta (Mammalia). Zeitschrift für geologische Wissenschaften, 10: 1009- 1018.

Melentis, J.K. (1967). Studien über fossile Vertebraten Griechenland. 19. Die Pikermifauna von Halmyropotamos (Euböa, Griechenlands). I Teil: Odontologie und Kraniologie. Annales géologiques Pays helleniques, 18: 283-411.

Mequenem, R. de (1924-1925). Contribution à l’étude des fossiles de Maragha. Annales de Paléontologie 13- 14: 135-160, 1-36.

Merceron, G.; Blondel, C.; Bonis, L. de; Koufos, G.D. & Viriot, L. (2005). A new dental microwear analysis: Application to extant Primates and Ouranopithecus macedoniensis (Late Miocene of Greece). Palaios: 20, 551-561. http://dx.doi.org/10.2110/palo.2004.p04-17

Merceron, G.; Blondel, C.; Viriot, L.; Koufos, G.D. & Bonis, L. de (2007). Dental microwear analysis of bovids from the Vallesian (late Miocene) of Axios Valley in Greece: reconstruction of the habitat of Ouranopithecus macedoniensis (Primates, Hominoidea). Geodiversitas, 29(3): 421-433.

Merceron, G.; Zazzo, A.; Spassov, N.; Geraads, D. & Kovachev, D. (2006). Bovid paleoecology and paleoenvironments from the Late Miocene of Bulgaria: Evidence from dental microwear and stable isotopes. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology., Palaeoecology., 241: 637-654. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.05.005

Merceron, G.; Blondel, C.; Brunet, M.; Sen, S.; Solounias, N.; Viriot, L. & Heintz, E. (2004). The late Miocene paleoenvironment of Afganistan as inferred from dental microwear in artiodactyls. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 207, 143-163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2004.02.008

Miller, G.S. (1912). Catalogue of the mammals of western Europe (Europe exclusive of Russia) in the British Museum. British Museum (Natural History), London, 1019 pp.

Mivart, S.G. (1882). On the classification and distribution of the Aeluroidea. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 135-208.

Morlo, M. (1999). Niche structure and evolution in creodont (Mammalia) faunas of the European and North American Eocene. Geobios, 32(2): 297-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-6995(99)80043-6

Morlo, M.; Gunnell, G.F. & Nagel, D. (2010). Ecomorphological analysis of carnivore guilds in the Eocene through

Miocene of Laurasia. In: Carnivore Evolution: New views on phylogeny, form and function (Goswami, A & Friscia, A., eds), Cambridge University Press, 269-310.

Nagel, D. & Koufos, G.D. (2009). Carnivore guild structure. In: The Late Miocene Mammal Faunas of the Mytilinii Basin, Samos Island, Greece: New Collection (Koufos, G.D. & Nagel, D., eds). Beiträge zur Paläontologie, 31: 391-396.

NOW (2010). Neogene Old World (database with the Neogene localities and their faunal lists). www.helsinki.fi/science/now/database.htm.

Pilgrim, G.E. (1931). Pontian Carnivora of Europe. British Museum Natural History, London, 174 pp.

Pilgrim, G.E. (1932). The fossil Carnivora of India. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Palaeontologia Indica, 18: 1-232.

Pilgrim, G.E. (1933). A fossil skunk from Samos. Annals Museum Novitates, 663: 1-15.

Qiu, Z. (1987). Die Hyeniden aus dem Ruscinium and Villafranchium Chinas. Münchner Geowissenschaften Abhandlungen, (A) 9: 1-110.

Qiu, Z.; Xie, J. & Yan, D. (1988). Discovery of the skull of Dinocrocuta gigantea. Vertebrata Palasiatica, 26: 128-138.

Roman, F. & Viret, J. (1934). La faune de mammifères du Burdigalien de La Romieu (Gers). Mémoires de la Société géologique de France, n. s. 18: 1-67.

Roth, J. & Wagner, A. (1854). Die fossilen Knochenüberreste von Pikermi in Griechenland. Abhandlungen Bayerische Akademie Wissenschaften, München Math.-Phys. Kl., 7: 371-464.

Roussiakis, S. (1996). Contribution to the study of the mammalian findings in the type locality of Pikermi. PhD thesis, University of Athens, 1-259. (in Greeks, unpublished).

Roussiakis, S. (2001a). Postcranial remains of Indarctos atticus (Ursidae, Mammalia) from the classical locality of Pikermi (Attica, Greece), with a description of the front limb. Senckenbergiana lethaea, 81(2):347-358.

Roussiakis, S. (2001b). Metailurus major Zdansky, 1924 (Carnivora, Mammalia) from the classical locality of Pikermi (Attica, Greece). Annales de Paléontologie, 87(2):119-132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0753-3969(01)80006-9

Roussiakis, S. (2002). Musteloids and feloids (Mammalia, Carnivora) from the late Miocene locality of Pikermi (Attica, Greece). Geobios, 35: 699-719. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-6995(02)00083-9

Roussiakis, S. & Theodorou, G. (2003). Carnivora from the late Miocene of Kerassia (Northern Euboea, Greece). Deinsea 10: 469-497.

Roussiakis, S.; Theodorou, G. & Iliopoulos, G. (2006). An almost skeleton of Metailurus parvulus (Carnivora, Felidae) from the late Miocene of Kerassia (Northern Euboea, Greece). Geobios, 39: 563-584. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geobios.2005.04.002

Schlosser, M. (1902). Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Saugerthierreste auf den Süddeutschen Bohnherzen. Geologische Pälaontologische Abhandlungen Iena, N.F., V(3): 115-258.

Schlosser, M. (1903). Die fossilen Säugetiere Chinas nebst einer Odontographie der recenten Antilopen. Abhanlungen Bayerische Akademie Wissenschaften, (IIC1) 22: 1-221.

Schmidt-Kittler, N. (1976). Carnivores from the Neogene of Asia Minor. Palaeontographica, Abt. A, 155: 1-131.

Schmidt-Kittler, N. (1983). The mammals from the lower Miocene of Aliveri (island of Evia, Greece). On a new species of Sivanasua PILGRIM, 1931 (Felidae, Carnivora) and the phylogenetic position of the genus. Proceedings Koniklijke Nederlandse Akademie Wetenschappen, B.86: 301-318.

Schmidt-Kittler, N. (1995). Carnivora, Mammalia. In: The Vertebrate locality Maramena (Macedonia, Greece) at the Turolian/Ruscinian boundary (Neogene), (Schmidt-Kittler, N., ed.). Münchner Geowissenschftische Abhandlungen, Abt. A, 28: 75-86.

Schmidt-Kittler, N.; de Bruijn, H. & Doukas, C. (1995). General Introduction. In: The Vertebrate locality Maramena (Macedonia, Greece) at the Turolian/Ruscinian boundary (Neogene), (Schmidt-Kittler, N., ed.). Münchner Geowissenschftische Abhandlungen, Abt. A, 28: 1-18.

Sen, S.; Koufos, G.D.; Kondopoulou, D. & Bonis, L. de (2000). Magnetostratigraphy of the late Miocene continental deposits of the lower Axios valley, Macedonia, Greece. In: Mediterranean Neogene cyclostratigraphy in marine-continental deposits (Koufos, G.D. & Ioakim, Ch, eds). Bulletin Geological Society of Greece, sp. publ., 9: 1197-206.

Solounias, N. (1981). The Turolian fauna from the island of Samos, Greece. Contribution in Vertebrate Evolution, 6: 1-232.

Strömberg, C.E.; Werdelin, L.; Friis, E.M. & Saraç, G. (2007). The spread of grass-dominated habitats in Turkey and surrounding areas during the Cenozoic: Phytolith evidence. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 250: 18-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2007.02.012

Suc, J-P.; Fauquette, S.; Bessedik, M.; Bertini, A.; Zheng, Z.; Clauzon, G.; Suballyova, D.; Diniz, F.; Quézel, P.; Feddi, N.; Clet, M.; Bassais, E. & Combourieu- Nebout, N.N. (1999). Neogene vegetation changes in West European and West circum Mediterranean areas. In: Hominoid Evolution and Climatic Change in Europe: The Evolution of the Neogene Terrestrial Ecosystems in Europe (Agusti, J.; Rook, L. & Andrews, P., eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 378-388.

Symeonidis N.K. (1975). Ein grosser Mustelidae aus Pikermi. Annales Géologiques des Pays Helléniques, 26: 314-319.

Symeonidis, N. (1978). Ein schädel von Metailurus parvulus (Hensel) aus Pikermi (Attica, Griechenland). Annales géologiques des Pays helleniques, 29: 698-703. Swainson, W. (1835). On the natural history and classification of quadrupeds. In : The cabinet cyclopaedia (Lardner, D., ed.). Longman, London, 397.

Teilhard de Chardin, P. & Leroy, P. (1945). Les Mustelidés de Chine. Institute of Geology, 4181-4185.

Thenius, E. (1947). Ursavus ehrenbergi aus dem Pont von Euböa (Griechenland). Sitzber. Akademie Wissenschaften Wien, 156: 225-249.

Trouessart, E.L. (1885). Catalogue des mammifères vivants et fossiles. Carnivores. Bulletin de la Sociète Études Sciences Angers, 14: 1-108.

Trouessart, E.L. (1897). Catalogue mammalium tam viventium quam fossilium. R. Friedlander und Sohn, Berlin, 218 pp.

Turner, A.; Anton, M. & Werdelin, L. (2008). Taxonomy and evolutionary patterns in the fossil Hyaenidae of Europe. Geobios, 41(5): 677-687. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geobios.2008.01.001

Van der Made, J. (2003). Suoidea (pigs) from the Miocene hominoid locality Çandir in Turkey. In: Geology and Vertebrate Palaeontology of the middle Miocene hominoid locality Çandir (Central Anatolia, Turkey), (Gülec, E.; Begun, D. & Geraads, D., eds). Courier Forschung-Institut Senckenberg, 240: 149- 179.

Van der Made, J. (2005). Errata and reply to Guests Editor’s notes. Courier Forschung-Institut Senckenberg, 254, 473-477.

Vasileiadou, K. & Koufos, G.D. (2005). The micromammals from the Early/Middle Miocene locality of Antonios, Chalkidiki, Greece. Annales de Paléontologie, 91: 197-225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annpal.2005.06.002

Villalta, J.F. & Crusafont, M. (1945). Nuevas aportaciones al conocimiento de los carnivoros Pontienses del Valles-Penedes. Dip. Prov. Barcelona. Publ. Inst. Geol. Miscelanea Almera, 7: 11-121.

Wagner, A. (1848). Urweltliche Säugetier-Ueberreste aus Griechenland. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2kl., 5(2):155-170. Wagner, A. (1857). Neue Beiträge zur Kenntniss der fossilen Saugthier-Ueberreste von Pikermi. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschafte, 8: 111-158.

Weithofer, A. (1888). Beiträge zur kenntniss der fauna von Pikermi bei Athen. Beiträge zur Pälaontologie Östereich-Ungarns, 6: 225-292.

Werdelin, L. & Solounias, N. (1991). The hyaenidae: taxonomy, systematics and evolution. Fossil and Strata, 30: 1-104.

Zdansky, O. (1924). Jungtertiäre Carnivoren chinas. Paleontologica Sinica, C.2: 38-45.




Copyright (c) 2011 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Licencia de Creative Commons
Esta obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.


Contacte con la revista estudios.geologicos@igeo.ucm-csic.es

Soporte técnico soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es