Estudios Geológicos, Vol 67, No 2 (2011)

El origen de los Homínidos: ¿Europeo, Africano, ambos o ninguno de ellos?


https://doi.org/10.3989/egeol.40613.196

B. Senut
Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Département d’Histoire de la Terre, Francia

Resumen


Durante los últimos veinte años, algunos científicos han sugerido que los grandes monos africanos y los linajes humanos surgieron en Europa, un escenario conocido como la “ Hipótesis de la vuelta a Africa”. A pesar de que los homínidos se extendieron en Eurasia durante el Mioceno Medio y Superior debido a las condiciones tropicales que prevalecian en esta region, no podemos descartar el hecho de que ellos estuvieron presentes en Africa (contra algunos autores). En realidad, ellos tuvieron una alta diversidad al mismo tiempo (al menos 10 líneas representadas), incluso si el registro fosil es menos completo que el de Eurasia. Elementos postcraneales de especies africanas sugieren que en algunos carácteres los homínidos modernos estaban ya presentes en el Mioceno Inferior y Medio de Africa, no sólo restringidos a las formas europeas. Teniendo en cuenta las evidencias disponibles, no es posible, en el estado actual de conocimiento, favorecer más un origen europeo que otro africano. Los homínidos vivieron en áreas tropicales del Norte de África y del Sur de Eurasia, cambios faunísticos se sucedieron entre los dos continents a lo largo del Mioceno Medio y Superior, sin que el Tetis actuase como una barrera efectiva a los intercambios entre Europa y Asia.

Palabras clave


Homínidos; Mioceno; Tetis; Hipótesis de la vuelta a Africa; Eurasia; Asia

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