Estudios Geológicos, Vol 70, No 2 (2014)

Condiciones de cristalización y diferenciación de las lavas del volcán El Metate (Campo Volcánico de Michoacán-Guanajuato, México)


https://doi.org/10.3989/egeol.41806.349

E. Losantos
Instituto de Geociencias (CSIC, UCM), España

J. M. Cebriá
Instituto de Geociencias (CSIC, UCM), España

D. J. Morán-Zenteno
Instituto de Geología (UNAM), México

B. M. Martiny
Instituto de Geología (UNAM), México

J. López-Ruiz
Instituto de Geociencias (CSIC, UCM), España

Resumen


El Metate es un volcán en escudo situado en el sector sur del Campo Volcánico de Michoacán-Guanajuato, uno de los dos campos volcánicos más grandes del Cinturón Volcánico Transmexicano. Su actividad tuvo lugar aproximadamente 4.700 ± 200 a B.P y produjo más de quince coladas de afinidad calcoalcalina que muestran diferente grado de diferenciación.
Las temperaturas calculadas mediante geotermómetros mineral-líquido para olivino, plagioclasa, y piroxenos muestran que la fase más temprana en cristalizar fue el olivino (1232–1198 °C), seguido de plagioclasa (1162–1126 °C), ortopiroxeno (1147–1027 °C) y clinopiroxeno (1147–1018 °C). Las estimaciones de presión sugieren que la cristalización comenzó a ~7 kbar y continuó hasta niveles superficiales. El contenido en agua del fundido durante la cristalización de la plagioclasa fue de ~1.6% en peso.
Las temperaturas calculadas a partir del contenido en Al de los anfíboles, indican que cristalizaron entre 995 y 922 °C, a una presión media de 3.5 kbar y con un contenido en H2O del fundido de entre 5.2% y 6.9%. Aunque estos valores estarían de acuerdo con que el anfíbol representa una fase tardía en el proceso de cristalización, el que estos cristales presenten siempre texturas de desequilibrio, que se observan también de forma ocasional en otras fases, sugiere que pueden representar xenocristales y/o que la cristalización de estas lavas ha tenido lugar en sistema abierto.

Palabras clave


Geotermobarometría; cristalización fraccionada; química mineral; diferenciación magmática

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