Estudios Geológicos, Vol 74, No 2 (2018)

Evaluación de la erosión de riberas de ríos en regiones semiáridas mediante datos de teledetección y SIG: caso del río Rdat (Marrakech, Marruecos)


https://doi.org/10.3989/egeol.43217.493

M. Ait Mlouk
Cadi Ayyad University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geology, Geosciences, Geotourism, Natural Hazards and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Marruecos
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0288-3743

Ab. Algouti
Cadi Ayyad University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geology, Geosciences, Geotourism, Natural Hazards and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Marruecos
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7501-5221

Ah. Algouti
Cadi Ayyad University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geology, Geosciences, Geotourism, Natural Hazards and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Marruecos
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1517-9133

Z. Ourhzif
Cadi Ayyad University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geology, Geosciences, Geotourism, Natural Hazards and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Marruecos
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9427-6934

Resumen


La erosión de riberas es el proceso de desprendimiento de los granos materiales que constituyen las orillas de los ríos bajo el efecto del agua. En regiones semiáridas, las inundaciones se caracterizan por su irregularidad. Este fenómeno tiene varios impactos ambientales en el ecosistema fluvial, por lo que es esencial realizar estudios al respecto. En este contexto, el propósito de este trabajo es proporcionar un enfoque sencillo que permita estimar las alturas de los bancos con el fin de evaluar la tasa de contribución de la erosión de riberas a la carga sedimentaria de los ríos durante los últimos 32 años y sus consecuencias en el sistema fluvial. La base de datos considerada son las imágenes Landsat de 1984 a 2016 y los datos de elevación ALOS PALSAR de la cuenca del Rdat, que se encuentra en el sureste de Marrakech en Marruecos, así como pruebas de campo. Estos datos se procesaron utilizando herramientas de teledetección y SIG y luego se combinaron para mejorar los resultados. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la ribera de la cuenca del Rdat es, de forma significativa, inestable y contribuye al suministro de sedimentos al río, con una tasa de retroceso en la ribera de 5 m/yr y una tasa de erosión volumétrica anual de 286,82 m3/yr en promedio. Los sedimentos liberados en el río, cuando se erosionan desde las orillas, pueden ser el origen de sedimentos contaminados (fósforo, mercurio...), así como la causa principal del relleno del cauce del río.

Palabras clave


Evaluación de alturas de las orillas; clima semiárido; Marrakech; Marruecos

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Referencias


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